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轩宇艺术青花瓷鉴赏:青花缠枝花卉盖罐

时间:2019-11-20 17:03来源:轩宇艺术 作者:xuanyu 点击:

众所周知,青花瓷乃是我国陶瓷烤制工艺的珍品,而小编今天会围绕着青花瓷展开介绍,和大家聊聊青花瓷的发展、历代特点及其纹饰。

As we all know, blue and white porcelain is a treasure of China's ceramic baking technology. Today, Xiaobian will introduce the blue and white porcelain around, and talk about the development, characteristics and patterns of blue and white porcelain.

提到青花,大家第一个想到的便是周杰伦的“青花瓷”,一句“天青色等烟雨,而我在等你”便串入大家的脑海里,并随之唱出。但其实天青色是汝窑的颜色,而青花瓷最初是由唐三彩的篮彩衍生而来的。那么就有人会问了,青花瓷是蓝色的,为什么叫青花瓷?其实主要是因为青花瓷发色是青料在焙烧过程的化学变化,呈色是 青料烧成后所呈现的直观感受。废话不多说,接下来,小编来和大家聊聊青花瓷的历史及其历代特点。

When it comes to blue and white, the first thing you think of is Jay Chou's "blue and white porcelain". A sentence "the sky is blue, and I'm waiting for you" goes into your mind and sings along with it. But in fact, sky blue is the color of Ru kiln, and blue and white porcelain was originally derived from the basket color of Tang tri colored porcelain. Then someone will ask, blue and white porcelain is blue, why is it called blue and white porcelain? In fact, it is mainly because the blue and white porcelain hair color is the chemical change of the green material in the baking process, and the color is the intuitive feeling after the green material is fired. There's not much nonsense. Next, I'd like to talk about the history and characteristics of blue and white porcelain.

青花瓷最早出现是在唐朝,诞生最初的原因是因为安史之乱后,唐朝逐步衰弱,而其他瓷器又发展过快,唐三彩瓷器制作便也随着逐步衰退,又因当时王朝颠覆之乱,唐三彩逐渐消失在人们的眼里,其技艺也随之消失。后人想重现唐三彩,于是在黄冶窑用三彩的原料烧制,不料阴差阳错,由于各种原因导致烧出的瓷器并不是三彩,而是青花瓷,当时的青花瓷的特点是白瓷、釉下点钴蓝、烧成温度摄氏1300度。当时的人们发现此类瓷器并不亚于唐三彩,又或者是经过数百乃至上千次的烧制,无法烧制出三彩瓷器,便将青花瓷视为唐三彩的延续。

Blue and white porcelain first appeared in the Tang Dynasty. The first reason for its birth was that after the rebellion of an and Shi, the Tang Dynasty gradually weakened, while other porcelain developed too fast, and the production of the three color porcelain declined gradually. Because of the rebellion of the dynasty at that time, the three color porcelain gradually disappeared in people's eyes, and its skills also disappeared. Later generations wanted to recreate the tri colored pottery of the Tang Dynasty, so they fired it in Huangye kiln with the raw materials of the tri colored pottery. Unexpectedly, it was a mistake. Due to various reasons, the porcelain produced was not tri colored porcelain, but blue and white porcelain. The characteristics of blue and white porcelain at that time were white porcelain, cobalt blue under glaze, and firing temperature 1300 . At that time, people found that this kind of porcelain was not inferior to the tri colored porcelain of the Tang Dynasty, or after hundreds or thousands of times of firing, they could not make tri colored porcelain, so they regarded blue and white porcelain as the continuation of the tri colored porcelain of the Tang Dynasty.

早期的青花瓷并不是一帆风顺的迅速发展起来,反而是走向了衰败。据小编了解,1957年在浙江省龙泉县的金沙塔塔基,共出土13片青花碗残片。该塔的塔砖上有绝对纪年北宋“太平兴国二年”(977年);另一处是1970年在浙江省绍兴市环翠塔的塔基,出土了一片青花碗腹部的残片。而这些残片的胎质有的较粗,有的较细。纹饰有菊花纹、圆圈纹、弦纹、线纹等。青花发色前一处的较浓、发黑,却没有发现与唐代时期的青花瓷有延续关系。而正在成熟的青花瓷是在元代的景德镇。

The early blue and white porcelain did not develop smoothly, but went to decline. According to Xiao Bian, in 1957, 13 pieces of blue and white bowls were unearthed at Jinsha tower base in Longquan County, Zhejiang Province. On the brick of the tower, there is an absolute chronology of the second year of Taiping's rejuvenation in the Northern Song Dynasty (977); on the other hand, in 1970, a fragment of the belly of the blue and white bowl was unearthed at the tower base of Huancui tower in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province. Some of these fragments are thick and some are thin. There are chrysanthemum pattern, circle pattern, string pattern, thread pattern and so on. Before the blue and white hair color, it was thicker and blacker, but there was no continuous relationship with the blue and white porcelain of Tang Dynasty. And the blue and white porcelain is maturing in Jingdezhen of the Yuan Dynasty.

元代的青花瓷无论是从制作配方还是造型纹饰,都是十分成熟和精湛。在纹饰方面的特点是构图丰满,层次多而不乱。笔法以一笔点划多见,流畅有力;勾勒渲染则粗壮沉着。主题纹饰的题材有人物、动物、植物、诗文等。人物有高士图(四爱图)、历史人物等;动物有龙凤、麒麟、鸳鸯、游鱼等;植物常见的有牡丹、莲花、兰花、松竹梅、灵芝、花叶、瓜果等;诗文极少见。

The blue and white porcelain of Yuan Dynasty is very mature and exquisite, no matter from the production formula or the modeling and decoration. In the aspect of pattern decoration, it is characterized by rich composition, multi-level but not disorderly. The strokes are frequent, smooth and powerful, while the outline and rendering are thick and calm. The theme of the decoration includes characters, animals, plants, poems and so on. The figures are Gao Shi Tu (Si AI TU), historical figures, etc.; the animals are dragon and Phoenix, unicorn, mandarin duck, swimming fish, etc.; the common plants are peony, lotus, orchid, pine and bamboo plum, Ganoderma lucidum, flower leaves, melon and fruit, etc.; the poems are rare

到了明清时期,青花瓷从鼎盛又走向了衰落。在明永乐、宣德时期是青花瓷器发展的一个高峰,当时是以制作精美著称;清康熙时以“五彩青花”使青花瓷发展到了巅峰;清乾隆以后因粉彩瓷的发展而逐渐走向衰退,虽在清末(光绪)时一度中兴,最终无法延续康熙朝的盛势。总的说来,这一时期的官窑器制作严谨、精致;民窑器则随意、洒脱,画面写意性强。从明晚期开始,青花绘画逐步吸收了一些中国画绘画技法的元素。

By the Ming and Qing Dynasties, blue and white porcelain had gone from prosperity to decline. In Yongle and Xuande periods of the Ming Dynasty, blue and white porcelain reached a peak of development, which was famous for its exquisite workmanship; in Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, blue and white porcelain reached its peak with "multicolored blue and white"; after Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, due to the development of pink and color porcelain, it gradually declined. Although it flourished at the end of the Qing Dynasty (Guangxu), it was unable to continue the prosperity of Kangxi Dynasty. Generally speaking, the production of official kilns in this period is rigorous and exquisite; the production of civilian kilns is free and easy, and the painting is freehand. From the late Ming Dynasty, blue and white painting gradually absorbed some elements of Chinese painting techniques.

 

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轩宇艺术有幸征得一对青花瓷器,此对青花罐敛口,丰肩,下腹收敛,肩沿纹有回纹,罐身绘有缠枝花卉纹,胎釉坚密温润,器表老气自然,造型丰满、浑厚、古朴、圆润,给人以质朴、庄重之感。其胎体,端庄稳重,胎体坚细,釉面亮润,笔触细腻,绘画工整,青花发色典雅,构图繁而有序、层次清晰,隽美潇洒,气韵流畅。极具研究与收藏价值

Xuanyu art has the honor to obtain a pair of blue and white porcelain. This pair of blue and white porcelain has a mouth, shoulders and lower abdomen. There are wrinkles along the shoulders. The body of the pot is painted with twigs and flowers. The fetal glaze is firm, dense and moist. The appearance of the ware is old and natural. The shape is plump, thick, simple and mellow, which gives people a sense of simplicity and solemnity. Its carcass is dignified and steady, its carcass is firm and thin, its glaze is bright and moist, its strokes are delicate, its painting is neat, its blue and white hair color is elegant, its composition is complex and orderly, its level is clear, it is meaningful, beautiful and unrestrained, and its charm is smooth. It has great research and collection value.

 

丰富艺术生活,传递艺术价值!如果您对此对青花瓷感兴趣,欢迎联系轩宇(广州)艺术传媒有限公司!

Enrich art life and transfer art value! If you are interested in blue and white porcelain, please contact Xuanyu (Guangzhou) art media Co., Ltd!

分享是一种美德,分享是一种快乐,学会分享,快乐他人!

Sharing is a virtue, sharing is a pleasure, learning to share, happy others!

 

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